Coconut flour

1. Coconut Residue (Sapal) Title Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE

2. OBJECTIVES:

1. To use the by-products of the coconut plant.

2. To introduce an alternative source of flour from coconut sapal.

3. To help the propagation of natural and organic products.

4. To provide high-quality flour product that will meet the demands of the consuming public.

5. To provide a cheaper choice of flour products with higher fiber content.

Title Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE

3. INTRODUCTION

Because of the increasing price of flours in the market today, local bakers tend to raise the price of bread and pastries products. We will introduce coconut flour made from coconut sapal as an alternative flour. Title Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE

4. LITERATURE REVIEW

 The coconut is known for its great versatility as seen in the many uses of its different parts and found throughout the tropics and subtropics.  Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is the Philippines’ wonder tree. Every part of it is used either for domestic or industrial purposes including the by-products.

Coconut FlourTitle Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE

5. LITERATURE REVIEW

 One of the by-products of coconut is the sapal or the coconut residual left after extracting the coconut milk.  Coconut sapal is usually thrown away because most of us find it as waste or used as feeds for chicken or as fuel at home.

 But coconut sapal could be made into flour. And nutritious as well. This is the promise of a research conducted by Dr. Trinidad P. Trinidad of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Her study was presented during the recently held 17th National Coco Week.

Title Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE

6. LITERATURE REVIEW

 During the past year, the price of flour has risen and keeps on increasing until now. The scarcity of supply of wheat and flour products worldwide is the main reason for the continuous rise of their prices in the market.

Local bakers announced that they would raise the prices of their products unless the government finds a substitute that is cheaper and locally available.

Title Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE

7.  The Philippines is the second largest coconut producer in the world and the largest exporter of coconut products. One of the products of coconut is the sapal taken after extraction of the coconut milk from its meat.

 The Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST) investigated and found the potential of using flour made from coconut residue as an ingredient in the formulation of functional foods.

Coconut flour has a total dietary fiber (TDF) content which is even greater than the popular dietary fiber sources such as oat brand and flaxseed. Increased intake of high-fiber food was found to be effective in the elimination of waste, sugar, and fat from the body and is recommended for better control of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

LITERATURE REVIEW Title Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE

8.  Dr. Trinidad used three parameters to determine the ‘functionality’ of coconut flour as food: fermentability, mineral availability, and the glycemic index.

 Dr. Trinidad P. Trinidad of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) found that the mineral available in coconut flour are: iron, zinc, calcium, and phytic and tannic acids. Moreover, as coconut flour itself is already a good source of dietary fiber, it does not affect the mineral content of other food when the coconut flour serves as an additive.

Title Hearing 2015; PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PALOMPON, LEYTE LITERATURE REVIEW

9.  Glycemic index is a classification of foods based on their glucose response relative to a starchy food. This makes it therapeutic for diabetic and obese persons by slowing down carbohydrate absorption.

 The use of coconut flour in the formulation of different food products would benefit not only the coconut industry and local bakers but also the general consuming public. This is by making available sources of dietary fiber in products such as extruded snacks, processed meat, breakfast cereals and bakery products that the masses of ordinary people want to have on their breakfast tables like the pan de Sal.

 Other bakery products that can be made with coconut flour include white bread, multigrain loaf, brownies, carrot cake, macaroons, granola bar and cinnamon. LITERATURE REVIEW

10. LITERATURE REVIEW

Coconut flour is a soft, flour-like product made from the pulp of a coconut. It’s actually a by-product made during the coconut milk making process. Coconut flour is extremely high in fiber with almost double the amount found in wheat bran.

This flour can be used much like wheat flour to make a multitude of delicious loaves of bread, pies, cookies, cakes, snacks, and desserts. It contains more calorie-free fiber than other wheat alternatives. Coconut flour also provides a good source of protein.

While coconut flour does not contain gluten (the type of protein found in many grains) it does not lack protein. It contains more protein than enriched flour, cornmeal and also as much as wheat flour. Coconut flour provides many health benefits. It can improve digestion, help regulate blood sugar, protect against diabetes, help prevent heart disease and cancer, and aid in weight loss.

11. BENEFITS OF THE COCONUT FLOUR

 Gluten-Free  Arguably coconut flour’s biggest attraction is its gluten-free status, meaning it contains none of the gluten protein molecules found in grains such as wheat, rye and barley. Gluten is highly allergenic and can even be deadly for people with Celiac disease (a condition where gluten damages the lining of the small intestine and prevents it from absorbing nutrients in food).

 High in Fiber  With 5 grams of fiber per tablespoon, coconut flour has far more of this indigestible carbohydrate than whole-grain flour, which has 0.8 gram per tablespoon, or white flour, which has just 0.2 gram per tablespoon.

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